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Through this local sedimentation capitation, coastal erosion is diminished and with that stabilization of the shorelines takes place, Large scale restoration activities are happening less. As stated before, much is learned by doing. For more than 30 years, a community in the central Philippines has been actively involved in reforesting and protecting a mangrove site, which has expanded from 50 hectares to 220 hectares (124 acres to 544 acres). Mangroves include about 16 families and 40 to 50 species, but depending on the classification 100 species can be counted (, Mangrove restoration is an activity that fits well in the working with nature concept because mangrove forests serve as natural coastal defence. This can be done for the same costs as planting alone. (. There is a massive mangrove die-back due to changes in the hydrological system, which is sometimes caused by natural events, but is more often the result of human interference with the natural hydrology (Erftemijer and Teunissen, 2009). There are a lot of benefits related to mangrove restoration (as stated before), which could, in theory, be commercially exploited. Mangrove forests can realize significant wave attenuation. climate change or land-use) and possible actions. There also needs to be an investigation of the social factors that might inhibit mangrove regeneration including land tenure, site usage, site history, what restoration attempts have been tried already, and other relevant socio-economic factors such as livelihoods that impact on mangroves. 1.1 Definition of Mangrove How MAP can help your organization implement CBEMR techniques, © 2020 Mangrove Action Project. The most important is the restoration of abiotic conditions that allow natural development of mangroves (interview B. van Weesenbeeck). Mangroves are very productive eco-systems; they provide benefits in different ways for many parties. Technically, rehabilitation or restoration of mangroves can be surprisingly easy: [ T] he single most important factor in designing a successful mangrove restoration project is determining the normal hydrology (depth, duration and frequency, and of tidal flooding) of existing natural mangrove plant communities ([i.e.,] a reference site) in the area in which you wish to do restoration (Lewis, 2005, p. 409). The needs of mangroves and other wetland plants and animals are not yet fully understood. Only in more developed countries this type of mangrove restoration activities could possibly be performed (. Mangrove … The dynamic and unpredictable character of working with nature solutions, require a continuous process of decision-making. The mangrove ecosystem consists of a lot of benefits and values (figure 2). Different value drivers can be translated from the above mentioned values, for example: sustainable shrimp farming, commercial charcoal production, carbon capture for compensation, tourism opportunities. Other objectives could be landscape enhancement, sustainable productions of natural resources and protection of coastal areas (Morrisson, 1990). Restoration of ecosystems will seldom reach this initial stage, but it will more often mean returning the ecosystem to a state of effectiveness (Bosire et al, 2001). Additional research is needed to build successful business models around mangrove restoration. Roy R. “Robin” Lewis III, has over 40 years of experience in seagrass meadow and mangrove forest mapping, management and restoration in the USA and twenty-two foreign countries. The elaborate giraffe gymnastics occurred in July 2017 when Dr. Freid joined us to conduct the initial botanical assessments of the two terrestrial sites. Pilot projects are running in for example Indonesia will provide further insights. The map aims to stimulate commitment among decision-makers and investors for mangrove ecosystem restoration on a landscape scale. Labour costs of the restoration and monitoring activities. Mangroves flourish by a depositional regime of fine sediments. Restoration of ecosystems will seldom reach this initial stage, but it will more often mean returning the ecosystem to a state of effectiveness (. The most important is the restoration of abiotic conditions that allow natural development of mangroves. Through all of its work, MAP also raises awareness among those participating as to the importance of mangrove forests, whether participants are policy makers, local citizens, or NGOs. The costs of individual projects should be calculated on a case-by-case basis, This project involved the expansion of an existing mangrove forest on the seaward side of a dike system estimated planting capital and recurrent costs at approximately US$41 per hectare of mangrove planted, at 2009 price levels. Using this approach, communities implement mangrove restoration on a local scale with improved understanding of the factors influencing mangrove restoration, so failures can be minimized, costs are low, and implementation is sustainable. Physical A lot of expertise on mangrove restoration has been gained during the past decades. Infrastructure development and hydrological diversion. An illustrative example is the story of a village in India’s province Tamil Nadu, In an attempt to get in the Guinness World Records book the inhabitants planted 80.244 saplings of mangroves. Estimate the modifications of the mangrove environment that occurred and that currently prevent natural secondary succession. The human factor in mangrove restoration should not be underestimated (Bosire et al., 2008). Natural regeneration is preferred, as the resulted forest is supposed to be more like the original forest (, Excavation or fill; In order for mangroves to grow, the restoration site needs to have a certain slope and a very exact tidal elevation to insure that the hydrology for the mangroves is correct. Coastal wetlands : an integrated ecosystem approach. “We don’t know the exact percentage, but most of the mangrove restoration projects around the world that are attempted are not successful,” Lewis says. The recovery and protection of mangroves can be increased by these plans, in which not only the ecological issues are taken into account, but also the economic and social issues (, The human factor in mangrove restoration should not be underestimated (. Storm protection can be realized through windbreak whereby mangrove trees are able to reduce wind speeds up to a distance about 20-30 times their height. 36/67 planting efforts) showed no surviving plants. Mangrove teams need to understand the biophysical parameters of the site, the ecology of the species present or expected, local hydrology and topography, and other features that might affect mangrove establishment.

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